Underskattar vi “robothotet”?

Posted in Aktuellt, Allmänt, Digitalisering / Internet on November 28th, 2018 by admin

Svenskarna eniga: Robotar inget hot mot våra jobb!

Svenskarna har en stark tilltro till sin egen arbetsförmåga – i alla fall i jämförelse med robotar. Inte en enda av över 1.000 tillfrågade tror att deras arbetsuppgifter helt eller delvis kan ersättas av automatiserad arbetskraft inom de närmaste tre åren.

Det visar en Sifo-undersökning som molntjänstbolaget Citrix beställt. Enligt svaren tror lejonparten – tre av fyra – att deras arbeten inte alls kan komma att påverkas av robotar.

Det är att underskatta kraften i digitaliseringen, enligt Citrix.

“Nya tekniska framsteg inom bland annat artificiell intelligens, maskinlärning och automatisering skapar helt nya förutsättningar för innovation och ritar om spelplanen för hur vi i dag gör affärer på. Jag tror att automatiseringen kommer göra människors arbete både bättre och mer intressant”, säger Mats Ericson, Sverigechef på Citrix.

Undersökningen visar att svaren skiljer sig stort mellan olika åldersgrupper, där de yngre är mer benägna att se sig ersättningsbara än de äldre. 21 procent i åldrarna 16–34 år tror att vissa arbetsuppgifter kan komma att automatiseras jämfört med endast 8 procent bland sysselsatta i åldrarna 56 år och uppåt. Totalsiffran oberoende av ålder är 14 procent. 10 procent tror att robotarnas intåg kan göra deras yrkesroller mer utvecklande.

Det är också fler bland de yngre som tror att deras yrkesroll kommer förändras inom tre år. I åldrarna 16–34 år är siffran 33 procent, jämfört med 22 procent i åldrarna 35–55 år och 16 procent bland personer som är över 56 år.

Källa:DI.se, 27 november 2018
Länk

The importance of good leadership

Posted in Aktuellt, Leadership / Ledarskap on November 28th, 2018 by admin

Leadership strength explains nearly 80 percent of the variance in companies’ ability to sustain exceptional performance over time.

Source: McKinsey.com, November 2018

How to improve your company’s leadership coaching results

Posted in Aktuellt, Executive Coaching, Leadership / Ledarskap on November 21st, 2018 by admin

In the geopolitical uncertainty following the Cold War, U.S. military leaders found themselves in uncharted territories. The world had become volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous — or VUCA, as they called it.

Leadership Coaching Results
That same term has also been used to describe today’s business environment, and industry leaders find themselves in similarly new territory. In a VUCA world, traditional command-and-control management styles simply don’t cut it.

By contrast, the best modern managers coach and empower their people to think critically and adapt fast, and it’s a learning process that takes significant time and trust. Still, it’s worth it. According to an ICF report from 2014, preparing managers to be good coaches boosts employee productivity and customer service by up to 39 percent.

Turning Managers Into Coaches
Companies that are aware of even the most basic coaching principles recognize that adults do not respond well to being told outright what to do. Instead, as research has shown, people need to discover new ideas and practices for themselves; that is, they benefit from leadership coaching.

Through the act of asking questions, having targeted conversations, and engaging people in practice and discovery, leaders can motivate significant changes in attitude and behavior back on the job — changes that can improve job performance. Knowing this, companies have recognized the benefit of embedding a coaching culture in their organizations, undertaking countless initiatives to inspire their leaders to become better coaches.

But do these leader-as-coach initiatives work? Have they successfully created coaching cultures? The results are mixed. Almost all big businesses have some sort of coaching skills program or initiative, but very few can call their initiatives successful.

Why is this? Unfortunately, too many coaching programs are written as if business still existed in a linear world. For example, the preponderance of the GROW model (set Goals, recognize Reality, identify Options, and Will it forward) shows a predilection for structured tools. Valuable as they are, however, structured tools aren’t necessarily the key to the agile transformation that businesses need in today’s fast-moving VUCA world.

So what does work? These four concepts are central to building into your business a coaching culture that gets results.

1. Make Every Minute Count
In order to become effective at professional coaching in a time-pressured world, managers have to retrain themselves on how to be fully present in one-on-one situations. Your presence as a coach is the single most important factor in your relationships. If you are distracted, judging, or worried about the other person, then it won’t matter how good your coaching is. It is better to have fewer, shorter, totally present interactions than to spend a longer time together with a lower quality of focus.

2. Emphasize Everyday Brilliance
Bring coaching to life at every opportunity by focusing on the everyday brilliance of your regular interactions rather than the occasional intimacy of long one-on-ones. Be sure to define and communicate which moments make a difference. What does it look like when someone starts a new task? How do they respond to making a mistake, and how could they respond differently? An overemphasis or reliance on processes such as the GROW model will cause you to miss those moments and miss the point of your relationships. Instead, stay engaged with daily activities — the ones that add up to new habits that improve performance.

3. Avoid Cookie-Cutter Training
Successful leaders encourage growth in others, but sometimes they express ideas in ways that aren’t easy to understand. It’s important to embrace that leadership that speaks to different ways of inspiring others. For this reason, you need to teach your leaders situational awareness: the ability to know when and how to adapt their instinctive approaches to fit others’ needs.

A good leader should be able to fluidly switch between styles. You’ll need to determine when it is best to step back and trust, as opposed to when it is time to ask the probing questions. When is it appropriate to share your own experience, and when it is best to provide challenging feedback? Each of these strategies has its place, and great line manager coaches know how to use the right mix at the right time.

4. Focus on Conversations, Not Questions
Abandon the notion that all a coach needs is the ability to ask great questions. Good coaches should use their adaptability to turn thoughtful questions into great conversations. Sure, questions are at the core of great coaching. However, having analyzed our database of more than 120,000 coaching conversations shows that distinct conversations will drive distinct changes.

With a VUCA environment in business today, managers can no longer rely on linear, cookie-cutter techniques to inspire people. Managers can take inspiration from coaches and learn how to adapt, be present, engage in conversation, and celebrate daily brilliance. By doing so, managers and their teams will become adept at navigating a volatile, confusing world with confidence, resilience, and adaptability.

Source: BTS.com, October 2018
Link
By: Jerry Connor, Head of BTS Coach, originally published by hr.com

Det här är det viktigaste för svenskarna på jobbet

Posted in Aktuellt, Allmänt, Leadership / Ledarskap on November 20th, 2018 by admin

Bra kollegor och givande arbetsuppgifter är några av de komponenter som svenskarna värderar högst när det kommer till trivsel på arbetsplatsen. Det visar en ny undersökning från Yougov.

Vi tillbringar en stor del av vår vakna tid på jobbet och hur vi trivs där påverkar också vårt välmående i det stora hela. Opinionsinstitutet Yougov har, på uppdrag av Metro, tillfrågat svenskarna vad som är viktigast för dem på arbetsplatsen. Hela 66 procent uppgav då att bra kollegor är det som de värdesätter allra högst.

– Det är ett intressant resultat, säger Niklas Laninge, psykolog och VD för Daily bits of, som utbildar inom hälsa och jobb, och fortsätter:
– De svarande har förmodligen erfarenhet av både bra och dåliga kollegor och det är lätt att tänka tillbaka på de dåliga. Sådant som vi har färskt i minnet och har lätt att komma ihåg är också det vi värderar som viktigare än andra saker.

Efter bra kollegor värderar vi att ha ”intressanta arbetsuppgifter” som det viktigaste, vilket inte förvånar Niklas Laninge. Däremot trodde han att meningsfullhet – att känna att ens arbete bidrar till en bättre värld – skulle hamna högre upp på resultatlistan än vad det gjorde.
– Det ligger i linje med vad som avgör vårt välmående, att kunna växa och utvecklas brukar vara saker som folk värderar väldigt högt.

Trots att vi har bra koll på vad vi gillar och behöver på vår arbetsplats tror Niklas Laninge att det är väldigt vanligt att stanna på ett jobb där man inte trivs. Det beror på att vi är vanemänniskor och är rädda för både förluster och förändringar.
– När det finns en risk ser man att folk avstår från att göra en förändring och istället står över valet, säger han.

Däremot har vi samtidigt ett behov av att få utvecklas. Om vi alltid står still på samma ställe utan att något händer löper vi stor risk för att det påverkar vårt mående negativt.
– Människor har en inneboende önskan om att växa, utmanas och göra något meningsfullt. Jobbet är en jättebra kanal för att göra det.

Det här är det viktigaste på arbetsplatsen:
1. Bra kollegor (66 %)
2. Intressanta arbetsuppgifter (57%)
3. Bra chef/chefer (53%)
4. Bra balans mellan jobb och fritid (39%)
5. Flexibla arbetstider (31%)
6. Utmanande arbetsuppgifter (27%)
7. Att jag känner att mitt jobb tillför något för samhället/bidrar till en bättre värld (22%)
8. Erkännande (22%)
9. Nära till hemmet (21%)
10. Möjligheter till avancemang (17%)
11. Möjligheter till vidareutbildning (17%)
12. Bra, ergonomisk arbetsmiljö (16%)
13. Bra kommunikationer (13%)
14. Att arbetsplatsen är estetiskt tilltalande (4%)
15. Annat (3%)

De svarande kunde välja flera olika svarsalternativ.

Länk (Metro)
Källa: Yougov.
Om undersökningen:
Undersökningen är genomförd av Yougov under perioden 12-16 augusti 2016. 1523 personer har svarat i undersökningen som genomförts via Yougovs panel med män och kvinnor i åldrarna 18-74 år.

Digital strategy: The four fights you have to win

Posted in Aktuellt, Allmänt, Digitalisering / Internet, Technology on November 19th, 2018 by admin

Yesterday’s tentative approaches won’t deliver; you need absolute clarity about digital’s demands, galvanized leadership, unparalleled agility, and the resolve to bet boldly.

If there’s one thing a digital strategy can’t be, it’s incremental. The mismatch between most incumbents’ business models and digital futures is too great—and the environment is changing too quickly—for anything but bold, inventive strategic plans to work.

Digital strategy: The four fights you have to win
Unfortunately, most strategic-planning exercises do generate incrementalism. We know this from experience and from McKinsey research: on average, resources don’t move between business units in large organizations. A recent book by our colleagues, Strategy Beyond the Hockey Stick, seeks to explain what causes this inertia (strategy’s social side, rooted in individual interests, group dynamics, and cognitive biases) and to suggest a way out (understanding the real odds of strategy and overhauling your planning processes to deliver the big moves that can overcome those long odds).

All this holds doubly true for digital strategy, which demands special attention. Leaders in many organizations lack clarity on what “digital” means for strategy. They underestimate the degree to which digital is disrupting the economic underpinnings of their businesses. They also overlook the speed with which digital ecosystems are blurring industry boundaries and shifting the competitive balance. (For more on why companies often fall short, see “Why digital strategies fail.”) What’s more, responding to digital by building new businesses and shifting resources away from old ones can be threatening to individual executives, who may therefore be slow to embrace (much less drive) the needed change.

In our experience, the only way for leaders to cut through inertia and incrementalism is to take bold steps to fight and win on four fronts: You must fight ignorance by using experiential techniques such as “go-and-sees” and war gaming to break leaders out of old ways of thinking and into today’s digital realities. You must fight fear through top-team effectiveness programs that spur senior executives to action. You must fight guesswork through pilots and structured analysis of use cases. And you must fight diffusion of effort—a constant challenge given the simultaneous need to digitize your core and innovate with new business models.

In this article, we will describe how real companies are winning each of these fights—overcoming inertia while building confidence about how to master the new economics of digital. You can join these companies in that effort, thereby giving your digital strategy a jolt and accelerating the shift of your strategy process as a whole, from old-fashioned annual planning to a more continuous journey yielding big moves and big gains even when the end point isn’t entirely clear.

1. Fighting ignorance

Many senior executives aren’t fully fluent in what digital is, much less up to speed on the ways it can change how their businesses operate or the competitive context. That’s problematic. Executives who aren’t conversant with digital are much more likely to fall prey to the “shiny object” syndrome: investing in cool digital technologies (which might only be relevant for other businesses) without a clear understanding of how they will generate value in the executives’ own business models. They also are more likely to make fragmented, overlapping, or subscale digital investments; to pursue initiatives in the wrong order; or to skip foundational moves that would enable more advanced ones to pan out. Finally, this lack of grounding slows down the rate at which a business deploys new digital technologies. In an era of powerful first-mover advantages, winners routinely lead the pack in leveraging cutting-edge digital technologies at scale to pull further ahead. Having only a remedial understanding of trends and technologies has become dangerous.

Raising your technology IQ
For inspiration on how to raise your company’s collective technology IQ, consider the experience of a global industrial conglomerate that knew it had to digitize but didn’t think its leadership team had the expertise to drive the needed changes. The company created a digital academy to help educate its leadership about relevant digital trends and technologies and to provide a forum where executives could ask questions and talk with their peers. Academy leaders also brought in external experts on a few topics the company lacked sufficient internal expertise to address.

Supplementing the academy effort (aimed at leaders) was an organization-wide assessment of digital capabilities and an evaluation of the company’s culture. This provided a fact base, which everyone could understand, about what the organization needed to build over the course of the digital transformation. As business leaders developed digital plans, they were accountable for explaining and defending them to other executives. They also had to help gather those plans into an enterprise-wide digital strategy that every business leader understood and had helped to create.

Overcoming competitive blind spots
If your company resembles many we know, it’s still stuck in some old ways of thinking about where money gets made and by whom. You’re also likely to be overlooking ways digital is changing both the economics of the game and the players on the field in your industry. If any of this sounds familiar, you probably need a jolt—something that forces you to think differently about your business. More specifically, you need to start thinking about it as digital disruptors do. In our experience, this demands a process that begins with a sprint to get everything moving, to see what your industry (and your company’s role in it) could look like if you started from scratch, and to redraw your road map.

The financing division of a European financial-services company went through such a process when it tried to understand digital’s impact on its current lines of business. For example, a conversation began in the auto-loans division with the question “how can we make it easier for people to get their loans online?” It turned into a deeper examination of “how does our business model change if people stop buying cars and start buying mobility?” Similarly, an auto insurer might move from asking “how can I sell car insurance online better” to “what does car insurance mean in the context of autonomous vehicles?” There’s no substitute for exploring such questions, which emerge when digital, regulatory, and societal trends collide with today’s value chain (for more on these collisions, see “Digital strategy: Understanding the economics of disruption”).

Once the new realities are discovered, companies should speed up the process of understanding how other players—including nontraditional ones—will respond. The financial-services provider jump-started things by holding a series of war-gaming workshops. It divided its leadership team into groups and assigned them to role-play potential attackers such as Amazon, Google, or small, cherry-picking start-ups. Seeing through the eyes of “baggage-free” attackers inspires an awareness of how players with very different core competencies are likely to act in the new landscape. It can also propel a shared sense of urgency to change the old ways of thinking and acting.

These sessions radically changed the way the company’s leaders thought about their business, their industry, and the digital shifts remaking both. The end result was a set of leading-edge ideas for deploying digital to make the current operating model faster and more effective, for investing in new digital offerings, for designing and launching a new digital ecosystem to meet the emerging needs of digital consumers, and for partnering with start-ups beginning to emerge as leading players in advanced mobility.

2. Fighting fear
Getting left behind by digital first movers can be hazardous to your company’s future. But many of your executives may perceive responding to digital—making the big bets, building new businesses, shifting resources away from old ones—as hazardous to their own future. As we’ve noted, that exacerbates the social side of strategy and breeds strategic inertia. If you want to make big digital moves, you must fight the fear that your top team and managers will inevitably experience.

From what we have seen, this kind of fight doesn’t happen organically. You need to design a programmatic effort with the same rigor you would insist on to redesign key processes across your organization. This typically involves making a clear case that executives can’t hide from the changes digital is bringing and that encouraging and accelerating change—rather than chasing it—can create more value. Then you need to give executives the tools and support network they must have to succeed as leaders of that journey. Many companies focus on the extensive detailing of digital-initiative plans but skip the critical step of building an equally rigorous program to sustain the leaders driving change.

Honest dialogue
At the industrial company we discussed earlier, the move to digital implied significant change in the characteristics leaders required to be effective. Naturally, concerns about waning influence, or worse, followed for many of the company’s 20 or so business-unit leaders. The industrial conglomerate confronted these fears head-on by organizing a top-team effectiveness program to surface anxieties, build awareness of how they were affecting decision making, and define how leaders could remain relevant. In workshops, executives discussed the specific mind-sets and behavioral shifts needed to gain “ownership” of digital initiatives as a group and to become role models for their organizations.

Support networks
Leaders also formed communities that cut across their businesses, initially to share best practices and coordinate the timing of implementation. Over time, the role of these communities grew to include skill-building activities, such as bringing in speakers with specialized capabilities and motivational messages and organizing Silicon Valley go-and-sees that reinforced the importance of leading digital change. The communities also provided peer support to help teams navigate the new landscape.

We have seen other organizations similarly coalesce around digital-leadership training (sometimes supported by digital advisory boards) that helps executives to become comfortable with—even embrace—the uncertainty of the destination and the career trade-offs needed for a well-executed digital strategy. These support networks dovetail with, and bolster, the digital IQ–raising efforts we described earlier. Indeed, we find that leaders who understand the shifting economics also understand that their careers will be affected one way or another.

3. Fighting guesswork

Pursuing an aggressive digital strategy involves leaps into the unknown: simultaneously, you are likely to be moving into new areas and overhauling existing businesses with new technologies. What’s more, in many digital markets, the premium of being a first mover makes it necessary not only to shift direction but also to do so faster than your peers. The combination of ambiguity and the need for speed sometimes gives rise to guesswork and moves that are hasty or poorly thought out—and to anxiety about whether a move isn’t going to work or just needs more time.

Building the proof points as you go
One way to fight guesswork is to anchor your strategy decisions to a thesis about the business outcomes that different digital investments will produce. This is less about elaborate business-school modeling and more about thinking that draws fast, ground-level lessons from the data to determine whether your business logic is correct. Put another way, it means figuring out if there is sufficient value to make it worthwhile to invest something—as part of a process of learning even more. This approach increases the odds of successful implementation: a well-articulated view of the outcomes means that you can track how well the strategy is working. It also makes it easier to assess whether the new direction is worth it in terms of both financial capital and organizational pain.

Those proof points must be grounded in digital reality. Consider the experience of a global oil and gas company investigating the potential impact of several advanced technologies on its business. Rather than develop theoretical value-creation scenarios, the company’s digital center of excellence got busy exploring: How might sensors, robots, and artificial intelligence improve productivity and safety in unmanned operations? What operating hurdles, such as skill gaps among managers and frontline workers, would need to be overcome?

“Skunkworks” efforts began to give the company sharper insights into the timetables and financial profiles of different investments, so it avoided both the “finger in the air” syndrome (which dooms some digital efforts) and excessive modeling (which bogs down others). The end result was a value-thesis projection of a pretax cash-flow improvement exceeding 20 percent by 2025. That built the confidence of senior leaders and the board alike.

Pilots and stage gates
A second way to reduce the need for guesswork is to take full advantage of real-time data and the opportunities they provide for experimentation. Digital does amplify the gut-wrenching uncertainty by multiplying the strategic choices leaders face while reducing the time frame for making and implementing those decisions. But it also contains a silver lining: the potential for gaining rapid, data-driven insights into how things are going. Information on the progress of a product launch, for example, is available in days rather than months. That makes rapid course corrections possible and, ultimately, considerably improves the chances of success.

The oil and gas company mentioned earlier got a rapid bead on the impact that its digital initiatives were having on its business performance when it automated the evaluation of several business cases. Testing was more or less continuous, which reduced the level of anxiety about the investments, because executives had hard data on how things were performing rather than relying on guesses or intuition in realms they didn’t know extremely well. It also gave them more confidence to push cutting-edge solutions: they didn’t need to see how other oil and gas companies did things when they could move first and see, in near real time, what worked and what didn’t.

An important element of this nimble approach was breaking up big bets into smaller, staged investments. While the oil and gas company was ready to invest in digital, it was decidedly uncomfortable with throwing money at a problem and hoping for the best. It therefore developed a series of rigorous stage gates for investments managed by a new, central digital-transformation office. The office was charged with overseeing the portfolio of digital investments to ensure that the most promising projects were funded and others defunded before they soaked up valuable resources. In tandem, the head of the company’s digital efforts was vested with the responsibility for approving which ideas would move to initial development, basing these decisions on the organization’s overall vision for digital.

The ideas, which originated mostly with the business units, included clear requirements for testing. The “fail fast” mind-set was embedded from the outset because it allowed the company to learn quickly from mistakes and to minimize wasted funding. Another payoff was that the central team could identify synergies, which allowed the development costs of some investments to be shared rather than borne by a single business. These processes helped temper some of the risks of the bold investments the company was making, gave leaders the confidence to venture ahead as first movers, and kept open the option to correct course quickly when the data pointed in another direction.

4. Fighting diffusion
Effective strategy requires focus, but responding to digital inevitably risks diffusion of effort, or “spreading the peanut butter too thinly.” Most companies we know are trying, and struggling, to do two things at once: to reinvent the core by digitizing and automating some of its key elements, for example, and to create innovative new digital businesses. The challenge is acute because of the dizzying pace of digital change and the uncertainty surrounding the adoption of new technology. Even if the technology for autonomous vehicles pans out, for instance, when will the majority of people really begin to use them? Given the impossibility of knowing, it’s easy to wind up with an unfocused hodgepodge of digital initiatives—a far cry from a strategy.

Two concepts can help you navigate. First, view your company as a portfolio of initiatives at different stages of seeding, nurturing, growing, or pruning. Our colleague Lowell Bryan championed this view upward of 15 years ago, and it is more relevant than ever in our digital age because the opportunities, time frames, and economics of core businesses can be very different from those of new ones—so resources and efforts shouldn’t be applied uniformly.

Second, embrace the necessity of “big moves,” such as the dramatic reallocation of resources, sustained capital investment, radical productivity improvements, and disciplined M&A. As our colleagues have shown, successful market-beating strategies nearly always rest on such moves. Making them mutually reinforcing, so that developments in the core help to support new digital businesses and vice versa, is a critical part of managing the risks of diffusion.

To understand what the application of these ideas looks like in practice, consider the experience of a global IT-services company wrestling with how much to invest in digital over the next five years (rather than use standard R&D funding across all of the company’s business lines). That meant scrutinizing which traditional businesses faced obsolescence as a result of digital, whether digital could stretch any of those lifetimes (or if immediate divestment was preferable), which new digital businesses to invest in, and how much to invest.

A portfolio approach
As a first step, the company went through its portfolio business by business, focusing on three questions: Which emerging digital products and services were missing from the portfolio? Which product offerings and elements of the existing operating model should be digitized or fully digitally reengineered to improve customer journeys? And what areas should be abandoned? The answers for the company’s healthcare markets differed from those for banking, but the company became comfortable with hard choices and more attuned to new opportunities by tying all decisions to clear use cases.

As part of this exercise, the company developed scenarios for how the value pools in each of its industry verticals would probably shift across component customer value chains. It wanted to get a sense of the types of services that clients and potential clients were likely to demand and thus might try to obtain from new suppliers or IT outsourcers. For businesses where more revenue would be likely to shift, the company was comfortable placing bigger bets on new digital offerings, in contrast with its approach to businesses where the revenue at stake wasn’t changing as much.

Big, mutually reinforcing moves
This systematic evaluation of value-pool opportunities across the portfolio generated a frank discussion of how the organization’s risk appetite had to change. It also catalyzed a greater willingness to invest in new digital businesses—which the company did, to the tune of more than $1.5 billion. As part of this strategic evolution, the company launched an aggressive program to better leverage foundational digital capabilities, such as automation, advanced analytics, and big data. These capabilities, to be sure, were key building blocks for the new digital businesses. Just as important, however, by deploying the capabilities at scale across existing businesses, the company was better able to stretch the life of its core offerings.

The portfolio strategy paid dividends both in revenue gains and cost reductions. For example, investing in a balanced fashion between core and new businesses led to faster than expected revenue streams from new offerings. The company estimated that 40 percent of its revenues would flow from them within two to three years. Moreover, its digitally improved core businesses, with a sizable base of existing customer revenues, provided additional funding for the new digital portfolio. That increased the leadership’s commitment to the strategy, bolstering confidence that the new portfolio offerings would provide growth more than compensating for the eventual decline of core businesses.

Your best digital competitors—the ones you really need to worry about—aren’t taking small steps. Neither can you. This doesn’t mean that a digital strategy must be designed or put to work with any less confidence than strategies were in the past, though. Strategy has always required closing gaps in knowledge about complex markets, inspiring executive teams (and employees) to go beyond their fears and reluctance to act, and calibrating risks when you bet boldly.

The good news is that the digital era, for all its stomach-churning speed and volatility, also serves up more information about the competitive environment than yesterday’s strategists could ever imagine. Simultaneously, analytically backed, rapid test-and-learn approaches have opened up new avenues to help companies correct course while staying true to their strategic goals. Today’s leaders need to step up by persuading their organizations that digital strategies may be tougher than other strategies but are potentially more rewarding—and well worth the bolder bets and cultural reforms required, first, to survive and, ultimately, to thrive.

Source: McKinsey.com, October 2018
Link
By Tanguy Catlin, Laura LaBerge and Shannon Varney
About the authors: Tanguy Catlin is a senior partner in McKinsey’s Boston office, where Shannon Varney is an associate partner; Laura LaBerge is a senior practice manager of Digital McKinsey and is based in the Stamford office.

Lär dig fortare och bättre (enligt vetenskapen)

Posted in Aktuellt, Allmänt on November 8th, 2018 by admin

Vill du bli bättre på att lära dig nya saker? Psykologen Niklas Laninge ger sex råd baserat på vad neurovetenskapen säger om inlärning och talar om att det inte finns några genvägar.

Det finns inga genvägar till inlärning. Tyvärr inte ens neurovetenskapliga sådana. Men den som vill bli bättre på att lära sig saker har garanterat något att vinna på att förstå sin hjärna lite bättre. Använder du kunskapen nedan rätt så kan en möjlig biverkning vara att saker du läser faktiskt fastnar.

1. Förändra din hjärna.
I hjärnan har vi omkring 100 miljarder nervceller. De är på olika sätt kopplade till varandra i nätverk. När vi lär oss något förstärks relevanta kopplingar. En vanlig analogi är att hjärnan är som en muskel – ju mer vi tränar på en viss sak, desto starkare blir vi. Länge trodde forskare att den här typen av kopplingar blev mer och mer fasta ju äldre vi blev, och därmed svårare att förändra. En god nyhet är att sådana antaganden nu har motbevisats.

Begreppet neuroplasticitet innebär att hjärnan är föränderlig genom hela livet. Det verkar förvisso finnas vissa inlärningsfördelar för barn då de inte byggt upp så många kopplingar i hjärnan ännu. Men att detta skulle innebära att loppet är kört för alla över 25 är falskt. Med andra ord: Utmana dig själv och din hjärna genom hela livet!

2. Var nyfiken.
Alla som suttit på en föreläsning man inte själv valt att gå på vet hur svårt det är att ta in något som man finner ointressant. År 2014 kunde ett forskarlag, med hjälp av hjärnavbildningstekniken fMRI, visa att försöksdeltagare som uppgav att de var nyfikna på att minnas en viss uppsättning bilder hade en högre aktivitet i hippocampus, en sjöhästformad struktur i hjärnan som antas spela en viktig roll när vi lagrar minnen. Personer som inte upplevde att de var nyfikna visade inte samma aktivitet i hippocampus. När forskarna några dagar senare bad testdeltagarna att försöka minnas vad de lärt sig så bekräftades att nyfikenheten underlättat inlärningen.

Ett tips är att även i de mest tråkiga stunder försöka hitta något som väcker din nyfikenhet i det du ska lära dig.
Så hur ska du agera på dessa rön? Ett tips är att även i de mest tråkiga stunder försöka hitta något som väcker din nyfikenhet i det du ska lära dig. Till exempel: Hur relaterar det till dig och ditt liv?

3. Stirra på en vägg.
Numera finns det i princip alltid något att göra. Den som precis lagt ifrån sig kursboken plockar snabbt upp telefonen för att kolla Instagram. Den som nyss nattat barn slår sig ner framför Netflix. Hjärnan hålls ständigt igång, och det verkar få konsekvenser för inlärningen. I en studie från universitetet i Edinburgh undersökte tre neuroforskare effekten av att ta en paus efter inlärning. Försöksdeltagare ombads att lägga en serie ord på minnet. Efter inlärningsperioden ordinerades en grupp ”vakenvila” i tio minuter medan en annan grupp fick ägna tio minuter åt att spela ett spel. Den förstnämnda gruppen presterade bättre på både lång och kort sikt jämfört med spelgruppen.

Kasta dig alltså inte från inlärning till underhållning och sen tillbaka igen. Ta en paus, stirra på en vägg och låt det du just läst eller hört sjunka in. Men läs gärna de följande tre stegen innan du tillämpar just detta råd!

4. Sov.
Powernaps och vakenvila i all ära men inget förbereder oss för inlärning så bra som en god natts sömn. I en studie utförd på militärer undersöktes hur sömnbrist påverkade soldaternas kognitiva förmågor. Just att störa soldaternas sömn är ett vanligt inslag i många militärutbildningar, så deltagarna var väl förberedda. Trots det så minskade en natt av förlorad sömn deras kognitiva förmåga med 30 procent. Efter två nätters dålig sömn så var tappet hela 60 procent. Att uppmana alla att sova ordentligt kan sticka i ögonen på många, inte minst småbarnsföräldrar. Tipset är i stället att vara snäll mot den som förlorat en natt och inte ställa för höga krav på hen, även när hen i fallet är en själv.

5. Skapa tid för återhämtning.
Minns du hippocampus från tips två? Alltså den del av hjärnan som är aktiv när vi lagrar minnen. Har du själv känt hur minnet sviker dig när du är stressad? När vi är stressade utsöndras hormonet kortisol som bland annat hjälper oss att möta utmaningar. På kort sikt är alltså kortisol någonting bra. Problemet är att den stress vi ofta möts av i dag sällan är just kortvarig. Stressen lägger sig aldrig och således heller inte kortisolutsöndringen. Det är här hippocampus kommer in. Den här strukturen påverkas nämligen av just kortisol. Faktum är att man har kunnat se hur personer som lider av långvarig stress har en minskad hippocampus.

6. Sorry!
Korsord, sudoku och hjärnträning ger ingen boost. I dag finns det tusentals appar som påstår sig kunna bistå med så kallad braintraining. I regel är apparna fyllda med olika typer av tankenötter, geometriska problem och ibland något som liknar sudoku.

En grupp forskare vid University of Texas ville titta närmare på om det finns något vetenskapligt belägg för sådana aktiviteter. I deras studie fick försöksdeltagare i åldrarna 60 till 90 år ägna sig åt utvalda aktiviteter under 15 timmar i veckan i tre månader. Vissa blev ordinerade mer krävande uppgifter som att lära sig något nytt (bland annat att fotografera med digitalkamera). Andra fick ägna sig åt mer bekanta aktiviteter som att lyssna på klassisk musik och att lösa just korsord. Efter tre månader var det just de deltagare som tvingats lära sig nya färdigheter som också uppvisade ett förbättrat minne och en ökad kognitiv förmåga. De som ägnade sig åt korsord blev också bättre – men bara på att lösa just korsord. Den så kallade spridningseffekten tycks alltså vara begränsad.

Tänk på att hjärnan är plastisk och att det aldrig är för sent att lära sig nya färdigheter. Utmana dig själv att lära dig något nytt så ska du se att det även ger effekt på allt gammalt du redan lärt dig.

Källa: DN.se, 8 november 2018
Länk

Niklas Laninge är psykolog och författare. Tillsammans med Arvid Janson har han skrivit böckerna Beteendedesign (Natur & Kultur) och Beslutsfällan (Volante).